MODUL WRITING

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Oleh: Drs. Suparlan, M.Ed SKS: 4 (empat) Semester: Pendek

FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN

UNIVERSITAS UTAMA JAGAKARSA

Jalan Letjen TB Simatupang Nomor 152

Tanjung Barat, Jakarta Selatan 12530

Telepon: (021) 7890965, 7829919, 78831838, 7890634

Fax: (021) 7890966

Kata Sambutan

Ibarat sebuah negara, kita menyadari sepenuhnya bahwa Universitas Tama Jagakarsa termasuk universitas yang masih sedang berkembang. Oleh karena itu, masih banyak hal yang harus dilakukan untuk universitas ini. Salah satu di antaranya adalah meningkatkan kemampuan dosen untuk dapat menghasilkan produk ilmiah berupa tulisan yang dimuat di berbagai media massa, atau bahkan diterbitkan dalam bentuk modul atau pun buku ilmiah.

Upaya Drs. Suparlan, M.Ed untuk menulis dan menerbitkan modul untuk mata kuliah yang diampunya patut mendapatkan sambutan kita semua. Sebagai dosen yang mengajar di Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, yang mahasiswanya banyak yang berasal dari para guru dan calon guru yang sedang mengajar di sekolahnya, kami menyadari bahwa penyusunan modul menjadi satu keniscayaan. Mengapa? Karena modul menjadi sumber belajar yang sangat diperlukan. Sambil melaksanakan tugas mengajar, para mahasiswa dapat belajar secara mandiri dengan membaca modul ini. Apalagi, selain materi kuliah yang telah dirinci dalam 16 (enam belas) kali pertemuan dalam satu semester, di dalam modul ini juga disertai pula dengan tes yang harus dikerjakan oleh mahasiswa. Tes ini disusun pula untuk setiap kali pertemuan sebagai ter formatif yang harus dijawab oleh mahasiswa, dan kemudian didiskusikan dalam pertemuan berikut sebagai appersepsi di awal perkuliahan berikutnya. Selain itu, modul ini diharapkan juga dapat menjadi media promosi bagi calon mahasiswa yang akan mengikuti kuliah di universitas ini. Semakin banyak warga masyarakat yang akan memasuki universitas ini, semakin besarlah nama baik universitas ini. Dengan demikian, secara bertahap universitas ini diharapkan akan mengganti label dari universitas yang sedang berkembang menjadi universitas dapat berdiri sejajar dengan universitas-universitas yang maju di negeri tercinta ini.

Kami berharap rintisan penulisan modul bagi mahasiswa ini segera dapat diikuti oleh para dosen lain di universitas yang kita cintai ini. Amin.

Jakarta, 20 Mei 2009

Rektor,

Prof. Drs. Tama Sembiring, SH, MM.

Daftar Isi

1. Introduction. 3

2. Competences. 3

3. Learning Objectives. 3

4. Learning Activities. 3

5. Description of Learning Activities. 4

5.1. Information and Personal Introduction. 4

5.2. Topic Sentence. 4

5.3. (1) Cause and Effect Paragraph; (2) Comparison and Contrast Paragraph. 6

5.4. (1) Definition paragraph; (2) Illustration paragraph. 8

5.5. (1) Classification and (2) Narrative Paragraph. 8

5.6. Analogy. 9

5.7. Presentation of all paragraph. 10

5.8. MSE.. 10

5.9. Writing Process. 10

5.10. Preparing. 11

5.11. Planning. 11

5.12. Drafting. 12

5.13. Incubating. 13

5.14. Revising, editing, and proofreading. 13

5.15. Selecting the best 14

5.16. FSE.. 14

6. Formative Test and Examination. 14

7. References. 15

1. Introduction

Writing is easy. Writing is just like riding bicycle. If we want to write, please do just write what we want to write. On the way when we are writing, may we have some problem about how that activities of writing. We try to solve the problem. We try to write again and again. We try to solve the problem while we are writing.

Off course, we have to study how to write better. The purpose of this book is to improve writing. John E. Warriner, Richard M. Ludwig, and Francis X Connoly stated that “we learn to write better in three ways: (1) by studying sentence structure, mechanics, and organization; (2) by reading widely; and (3) by writing and rewriting.

This book provides you with many exercises about how to write better.

2. Competences

By completion of this writing class, the students will be able to write better in three ways.

2.1. to write paragraphs and sentences,

2.2. to understand how to generate ideas,

2.3. to draft of writing,

2.4. to revise the draft of writing,

2.5. to write four models in writing: description, exposition, argument and persuasion, and narration

3. Learning Objectives

3.1. to write paragraphs,

3.2. to write sentences,

3.3. to understand how to generate ideas,

3.4. to draft of writing,

3.5. to revise the draft of writing,

3.6. to write model of description,

3.7. to write model of exposition,

3.8. to write model of argumentation and persuasion, and

3.9. to write model of narration.

4. Learning Activities

These activities are divided into 16 sections as follow:

Meeting

Learning Matertials

I

Information and personal introduction. Students write paragrah ”Personal Introduction”.

II

Topic sentence. Students write a topic sentence “My University”

III

Cause and effect paragraph. Students write a paragraph “The Social and Cultural Values and The Wealth of The Nation”

Comparison and contrast paragraph. Students write a paragraph ”My Home Land and The City of Jakarta”

IV

Definition paragraph. Students write a paragraph “Nonformal Education”

Illustration paragraph. Students write a paragraph ”Information and Communication Technology”

V

Classification paragraph. Students write a paragraph “Social stratification”

Narration paragraph. Students write a paragraph “Vocational School”

VI

Analogy paragraph. Students write a paragraph “Rain Forest in Indonesia

VII

Presentation of all paragraphs.

VIII

MSE (Mid-semester Examination)

IX

Writing process. Small group of students organize ideas, select, and plan a process of writing.

X

Selecting a topic or title of writing. Small group of students select a topic or title of writing, and arrange the subtitle.

XI

Revising the draft. Small group of students write a draft.

XII

Final draft. Small group of students write the final draft.

XIII

Presentation of the final draft (phase I)

XIV

Presentation of the final draft (phase II)

XV

Selecting the best final draft and trying to submit to magazine.

XVI

FSE (Final Semester Examination)

5. Description of Learning Activities

5.1. Information and Personal Introduction

The teacher explains this module briefly. Then, the teacher gives this module to the students. Be sure, that students understand what they have to do about this module. The students have to read all of the learning activities. They have to accomplish all assignments in this module.

In this first meeting the students write in a title of “Personal Introduction”. It must be submitted to the teacher.

5.2. Topic Sentence

Hariston explained that “one way to avoid paragraph sprawl and keep a paragraph tight is to use a topic sentence that states your main idea clearly” (Hairston: 1993: 159). The topic sentence makes the unified paragraph. Topic sentence is a sentence that states the main idea of a paragraph. A topic sentence usually contains only one main idea. The main idea is supported by many sentences in a paragraph.

Please try to give us many ideas about education.

Prenatal education

Childhood education

Preschool education

Primary education

Secondary education

Higher education

Cost of education

Method of teaching and learning

Parents

Etc.

Please do try to make topic sentence about the main idea about education.

Prenatal education is very important, but people do not know how to implement the concept of prenatal education.

Cost of education in schools of Indonesia is very high.

Parents need to be involved in change efforts because their perspectives affect the success of any reforms a school attempts to implement.

Etc.

Hairston stated that “the topic sentence doesn’t have to be the first one in the paragraph, although it often is, particularly in academic writing. Wherever it is located, a topic sentence acts like a magnet around which related sentence cluster” (1993: 159 – 160).

Here is an example by a professional writer; the topic sentence is boldfaced, as bellow:

For the foreseeable future Japan will be America’s single most valuable partner because of what it can do in three areas (topic sentence). First in the US – Japan military understanding, which prevents Japan from building as large an army as it would need on its own, leaves the US as the reigning power in the Pacific, adds very little cost to the US military budget, and prevents an arms race throughout Asia in which all countries would try to defend themselves against the Japanese. Second is finance: Japan has become America’s financier, providing investment capital and covering much of the US government’s debt. The third is business: Japan- American business relations provide technology, markets, talent, supplies and other essential elements to both nations’ companies (James Fallows, Containing Japan).

Here is the second example”

The history of American education shows that the relationship between parents and educators has often been prickly and problematic – as it is likely to continue to be so in the future (topic sentence). Although parents and educators share the same goal --- that all children will learn and be successful in school --- they bring different perspectives to this challenge. And because public funds support the schools and business hire their graduates, the opinion of people who do not have children in school also matter when decisions are made about public education (Anne Wescott Dodd, How Communities Build Stronger Schools).

In the second meeting, please do try to construct a short paragraph consist of the main ideas on education elements, such as:

Student

Teacher

Parents

Educational objectives

Instrumental in put of education

Educational out put

Etc.

According to Hairston, there are seven common paragraph pattern, such as: (1) cause and effect, (2) comparison and contrast, (3) definition, (4) illustration, (5) classification, (6) narration or process, and (7) analogy.

5.3. (1) Cause and Effect Paragraph; (2) Comparison and Contrast Paragraph.

In a paragraph explaining why or how something happened, you can begin with a statement of effect, and enumerate the causes, or you can give your causes first and conclude with the effect. Here is an example.

By the mid-1980s, the price of economy cars had risen substantly, with the smallest Japanese and American sedans bearing sticker prices that approached or exceeded five figures. American car companies claimed that the profit margins on cheap car were too small to justify producing vehicles under $6.000. Because of import quotas, the Japanese could export only a limited number of vehicles, so they understandably preferred to ship their more profitable luxury and sporty lines to America. As a consequence, a gap opened at the lower and of the automobile market, leaving room for manufacturers from Third World countries, with their reduced labor and production costs, to compete. They introduced to America some of the lowest-priced cars consumer hade seen in years.

In this session, students have to write a descriptive paragraph about the main idea of “The Social and Cultural Values and The Wealth of The Nation”

A paragraph can be built quite naturally upon a comparison and contrast pattern. Here’s an easy-to-follow paragraph that sets up a comparison in the first sentence, discuss each item in alternating sentences, and concludes with a sentence that again compares both objects.

Here is an example:

Two of the earliest and most publicized of these low-priced, Third World automotive imports were the Yugo and the Hyundai. The Yugo looked dated the day it arrived on American shores, not surprisingly, since it was based on a twenty-year-old Fiat design. But the Yugoslavian sedan could claim one feature no other new car available in America offered: a sticker price under $4,000. The Hyundai introduced to American was a brand-new car, with a body styled in Europe and an engine based on Japanese technology at old-fashioned prices. Both manufacturers established a beachhead in the American market within a year, the Hyundai’s much larger than the Yugo’s.

Here is again an example:

Saying social service spending has been shortchanged under Bush, he also proposes a $500 million per year program to provide summer learning for 1 million poor children to help close achievement gaps with white and wealthier students. A campaign fact sheet said he would pay for it by better managing surplus federal properties, reducing growth in the federal travel budget and streamlining the federal procurement process.

Like Bush, Obama was arguing that religious organizations can and should play a bigger role in serving the poor and meeting other social needs. But while Bush argued that the strength of religious charities lies primarily in shared religious identity between workers and recipients, Obama was to tout the benefits of their "bottom-up" approach.

"Because they're so close to the people, they're well-placed to offer help," he was to say. (www.yahoo.com)

In this session, students have to write a descriptive paragraph about the main idea of “My Home Land and The City of Jakarta”

5.4. (1) Definition paragraph; (2) Illustration paragraph

Usually, paragraph of definition often work in the introductory part of a paper that explains of argues. They’re helpful in setting limits or establishing the meaning of a crucial term. Here is an example of definition paragraph.

Aerobic exercise is exercise involving steady movement performed at a rate sufficient to reach a target heart rate substantially above the normal pulse and to sustain it at that rate for a prescribed period of time, at least twenty but preferably thirty minutes. For beneficial aerobic effect, an individual needs to maintain a target heart rate approximately twice his or her normal heart rate. Steady rowing, swimming, bicycling, running, or brisk walking are aerobic activities. Golf, tennis, weightlifting, and other activities in which one rests, frequently are not. Aerobic exercise benefits the cardiovascular system and helps the body to burn calories.

In this session, students have to write a descriptive paragraph about the main idea of “Non-formal Education”

A paragraph of illustration starts out with a general statement (or question) and develops it by furnishing examples that support or elaborate on the statement. The example can be useful for us.

Gold is the universal prize in all countries, in all cultures, in all ages. A representative collection of gold artifacts reads like a chronicle of civilizations. Enameled gold rosary, 16th century, English, Gold serpent brooch, Abyssinian, Gold snake bracelet, ancient Roman, Ritual vessels of Achaemenid gold, 6th century BC, Persian. Bulls’ heads in gold … Ceremonial gold knife, Chimu, pre-Inca, Peruvian, 9th century (J. Bronowski, The Ancent of Man).

At the end of this session, students have to write a descriptive paragraph about the main idea of “Non-formal Education”

5.5. (1) Classification and (2) Narrative Paragraph

A writer develops a classification paragraph by first naming the subject to be classified, then explaining the system by which he or she is going to carry out the classification and giving examples to illustrate the various classes. Here is an example that begins with a question.

You did not know that superstition takes four forms? Theologians assure us that it does. First is what they call Vain Observances, such as not walking under a ladder and that sort of thing. Yet I saw a deeply learned professor of anthropology who had spilled some salt throwing a pinch of it over his left it was “to hit the Devil in the Eye”. I did not question him further about his belief in the Devil: But I noticed that he did nit smile until I asked him what he was doing (Robertson Davis, “A Few Kind Words for Superstition”)

At the end of this session, students have to write a descriptive paragraph about the main idea of “Rain Forest in Indonesia”.

A narrative paragraph is not just a description. A narrative paragraph is more than a descriptive paragraph. “Expository prose is primarily concerned with the “why” or how of things, Of course, description and narrations are used within exposition when needed to make the explanation clearer or more interesting.

Margaret Mead is perhaps the world’s most famous anthropologist. In 1925, when it was unthinkable that a twenty-three-year-old women would make such a distant field trip, Margaret Mead sailed from the US to Samoa in the South Sea Islands. Her purpose was to study the adolescent girl, specifically to test the extent to which the troubles of adolescence depend on the attitudes of a particular cultere, and the extent to which they are inherent in the delopment of all human being. From this field trio came the now-classic study Coming of Age in Samoa (1928). Mead returned to the South Seas on other ethnological expeditions (expeditions set up to analyze and compare cultures). The article reprinted here explains the process of how she set up and carried out fieldwork among the Manus Island people of Melanesia (Warriner cs: 1994: 181)

In this session, students have to write a descriptive paragraph about the main idea of “Vocational School”, and must be submitted to the teacher.

5.6. Analogy

An analogy is an extended comparison. One especially good use of analogy is to help readers understands a concept by showing a resemblance between the known and the unknown. Here is an example of the paragraph.

The domed-over stadium gives no evidence to the traveler of the crowd within. However, he sees the lines of traffic converging from all direction, becoming more and more tightly packed in traffic jams as they approach the center of attraction. A black hole whirling about, and being whirled about in orbit by, a normal star will also be the recipient of clouds of gas from this companion, with all the puffs and swirls that one can imagine from watching a factory chimney belch its clouds of smoke. This gas will not fall straight in. It will orbit the black hole in ever tighter spirals as it works its way inward, making weather on its way. It, like the traffic approaching the stadium, will be squeezed more and more (John Wheeler, “Black Holes and New Physics).

At the end of this session, students have to write a descriptive paragraph about the main idea of “Rain Forest in Indonesia”, and it must be submitted to the teacher.

5.7. Presentation of all paragraph

All paragraphs have been submitted will be presented in a class discussion. The paragraph will also be edited and will be documented for the faculty. Every student will present their own paragraph. Other student will command their opinion to the paragraph.

5.8. MSE

In the last session of this semester, the student will attend to take a mid-semester examination held by the faculty. The item test of formative test and examination are in this module.

5.9. Writing Process

Hairston (1993: 6) explained the process of writing in five stages: (1) preparing, (2) planning, (3) drafting, (4) incubating, (5) revising, editing, and proofreading.


5.10. Preparing

How do you prepare writing? First, stimulating topics, as many as you can. Second, narrowing a topic from many topics listed. Third, choose just one topic. Stimulating topics are the first step of preparing our writing. Just list any possibilities that sound interesting. One of the important criteria is the topics must be “in”. In areas of education, many topics can be listed, as follow:

National examination

Process of teaching and learning

Childhood education

The Golden Age of Humanity

Etc.

Based on the many topics can be listed above, you have to determine one title, for instance “The Golden Age of Humanity”.

5.11. Planning

In this stage, you try to outline the title in to subtitle. After this process, you have to find materials from books or many sources from printed media. You can also browsing from internet. You can write a draft.

The Golden Age of Humanity

· What is the meaning of the golden age of humanity?

· Why it is called the golden age?

· Why it is important?

· What is the educational implication?

· How do we can stimulate the brain of our children?

· Etc.

5.12. Drafting

This stage is very crucial process in writing. Many people can not write because of just they do not experiences to write. So, just get start writing. Just write like you ride your bicycle. Just write like you swim in the pool.

Hairston (1993: 64) explain the checklist how to get start writing.



5.13. Incubating

No one really knows what happens during these incubation periods. The creative or problem-solving part of the mind seems to dive in the subconscious. It sorts through what it finds there, discovers fresh ideas, and makes unexpected connections. You can not force or rush incubation; you can only be ready to grab an idea when it surfaces.

Incubation period can be a period of rest. Of course this period is absolutely necessary. If this period is over, then start again to write. Continue the next period to revise, edit, and proofreading.

5.14. Revising, editing, and proofreading

The three stage of revising, editing, and proofreading are the rest of writing process, as below:

· When you start revising your draft, you may decide to get new idea and shift the focus of the paper entirely; you may decide to cut, expand, and reorganize the original draft so much that it becomes virtually a new piece.

· This stage of editing your later draft is trying to pay attention to matters of style that affect clarity and emphasis. In this stage, the writer may create sentences and paragraphs that present the ideas effectively.

· The process of proofreading especially to pay attention on correcting typographical errors and eliminating inconsistencies.


5.15. Selecting the best

All of the students finish the writing process according to their own title. They have to do the best in writing. The students read all of the final draft of writing, and discuss the process and the result of writing.

5.16. FSE

At the end of this semester, the student will accomplish the final semester examination (FSE).

6. Formative Test and Examination

6.1. Formative Test # 1: Personal Introduction

6.2. Formative Test # 2: My University

6.3. Formative Test # 3: (1) The Social and Cultural Values and The Wealth of The Nations, (2) My Homeland and The City of Jakarta

6.4. Formative Test # 4: (1) Non-formal Education, (2) Information and Communication Technology

6.5. Formative Test # 5: (1) Social Stratification, (2) Vocational School

6.6. Formative Test # 6: Rain Forest in Indonesia

6.7. Formative Teat # 7: Presentation.

6.8. MSE

1. What topic sentence is?

2. What is the use of a topic sentence in a paragraph?

3. Give an example of description!

4. Give an example of narration!

5. Give an example of definition!

6.9. Formative Test # 9: Explain the stages of writing process!

6.10. Formative Test # 10: Give me at least ten ideas of writing in education!

6.11. Formative Test # 11: Organize one of the ideas to be two or three titles!

6.12 Formative Test # 12: Choose on of them as a fix title!

6.13. Formative Test # 13: Outlining the title!

6.14. Formative Test # 14: Explain the process of revising, editing, and proofreading!

6.15. Formative Test # 15: Selecting the best from all of the draft

6.16. FSE

1. What is the meaning that actually writing is simple as swimming!

2. What topic sentence is?

3. What is the use of a topic sentence in a paragraph?

4. Give an example of description paragraph!

5. Give an example of narration paragraph!

6. Give an example of definition paragraph!

7 Give an example of process paragraph!

8. Give an example of classification paragraph!

9. Give an example of cause and effect paragrah!

10. Give an example of comparison and contrast paragraph

7. References

Besser, Pam. 1994. A Basic Handbook of Writing Skills. California: Mayfield Publishing Company.

Hairston, Maxine and Ruszkiewicz, John J. 1993. The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers. Third Edition. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.

Warriner, John E, Ludwigm Richad M, Connoly, Francis X. 1977. Advanced Composition: A Book of Models for Writing. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

First draft: June 30, 2008

Later draft, July 1, 2008

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